30 July 2021

[Energy-Storage] – Engineering 2D nanofluidic channels for energy storage application.

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Despite being a promising electrode material, bulk cobalt oxide (Co3O4) exhibits poor lithium ion storage properties. Nanostructuring, e.g. making Co3O4 into ultrathin nanosheets, shows improved performance, however, Co3O4-based nanomaterials still lack long-term stability and high rate capability due to sluggish ion transport and structure degradation.

Nanofluidic channels possess desired properties to address above issues. However, while these unique structures have been studied in hollow nanotubes and recently in restacked layered materials such as graphene, it remains challenging to construct nanofluidic channels in intrinsically non-layered materials.

Motived by the large number of non-layered materials, e.g. transition metal oxides, which hold great promise in battery applications, scientists aim to extend the concept of nanofluidic channels into these materials and improve their electrochemical properties.

Nanofluidic channels feature a unique unipolar ionic transport when properly designed and constructed. By controlling surface charge and channel spacing, enhanced and selective ion transport can be achieved in these channels by constructing them with dimensions comparable to the double Debye length and opposite surface charge with respect to the transporting ion.

In a new study published in Advanced Materials, researchers have developed a Co3O4-based two-dimensional (2D) nano-architecture possessing nanofluidic channels with specially designed interlayer characteristics for fast lithium ion transport, leading to exceptional performance in lithium ion batteries ever reported for this material.

“Such constructed 2D nanofluidic channels in non-layered materials manifest a general structural engineering strategy for improving electrochemical properties in a vast number of different electrode materials,” Guihua Yu, a professor in Materials Science and Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, at the Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin. “The enhanced and selective ion transport demonstrated in our study is of broad interest to many applications where fast kinetics of ion transport is essential.”

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